Politics & Security http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata <p><strong>Focus and Scope:</strong> national security of the state and its components; public order; <span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">information security; cyber security;</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> economic; management; </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">finance.</span></p> en-US paperspol.sec@gmail.com (Ivan Tkach) pechat@vusi.bg (Камелия) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 14:38:33 +0300 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Gambling and fiscal security http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/186 <p>The gambling industry is one of the fastest growing. Gambling is associated with illegal activities such as money laundering, tax evasion, drug distribution, terrorist financing and others that directly affect the national security of each country.</p> <p>The study is theoretical in the context of the NRAʼs recently imputed powers to control gambling activity and is a study of the obligations of gambling promoters in relation to compliance. The article pays attention to the control carried out by the National Revenue Agency (NRA) over gambling activities, including through the implementation of anti-money laundering measures.</p> <p>The purpose of the article is to acquaint the public with the powers of the revenue authorities in the NRA in their control actions in the performance of the obligations of the organizers of gambling games and to indicate the most common violations leading to a threat to the fiscal security of the country.</p> <p>This article launches a study of judicial and administrative practice and limitation of the prerequisites for tax evasion or money laundering as a threat to the fiscal security of the state.</p> <p>This study is the first of its kind and pays attention to effective tax control as a prerequisite for protecting national security.</p> <p>In view of scarce court law and administrative practice, this material allows for future research on the subject.</p> Nedyalka Petrova Copyright (c) 2022 Nedyalka Petrova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/186 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Threats to financial security http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/187 <p>The study of threats related to financial security and the possibilities to minimize and eliminate the negative impacts and encroachments of fraud attempts on people, companies, the state and the EU are current security issues and challenges. The Internet has become a hyper-attractive place for criminals, as they often use tricks and promises to obtain money or valuable banking information. The techniques and tactics used are increasingly innovative and difficult to detect and deserve a thorough review in order to protect potential victims of bank fraud from threats.</p> Boyko Petev Copyright (c) 2022 Boyko Petev https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/187 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Russian-Ukrainian conflict as a result of the confrontational nature of the international politics of the world powers http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/189 <p>Ukraine is a classic example of the promotion of interests between competing world powers. On the one hand, it is the USA and the countries of the European Union, on the other, Russia. International tension in this space has existed basically since the creation of Ukraine as an independent state. It took place with different intensity and in different forms. The confrontational nature of the policy implemented in this way resulted in the first military conflict in 2014. In this conflict, Russian separatists, i.e. the Russian national minority living on Ukrainian territory, and the Ukrainian army fought against each other. The Russian army was not yet officially active in this conflict, even though Russia openly supported the separatists. Since 2014, international diplomacy had the opportunity to reach agreements that would be acceptable to all parties involved, which unfortunately did not happen. Achieving an acceptable consensus should have been mainly in the interest of the EU countries and Russia, i.e. basically Europe as a continent. Geographically, this continent does not end at the borders of Schengen, even though this border divides it into two opportunistic parts. Instead of reaching a consensus, there was a gradual aggravation of relations and an escalation of tensions, which ultimately resulted in this year's direct Russian military intervention on Ukrainian territory. The local conflict thus acquired an international character, where are directly or indirectly involved more and more countries. The outcome of the conflict is not yet known, but it is already possible to say that it will have significant economic impacts on European countries living both in the Schengen area and outside it. Europe will have to deal with the end of supplies of Russian raw materials, on which its individual countries depended to varying degrees. A lot of European countries was not prepared for such a situation. This degree of dependence is the cause of contradictions between individual EU member countries, which may ultimately result in the disruption of the integrity of this previously functioning community. On the other hand, Russia will thus lose an important customer, which will deepen its dependence on China and subsequent orientation towards Eastern countries, which will increase the already existing global polarization.</p> Martin Mašľan Copyright (c) 2022 Martin Mašľan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/189 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Foreign experience of the development of mortgage lending as one of the most important economic factors in Ukraine http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/190 <p>The article reveals the theoretical and practical experience of adapting the foreign experience in the development of mortgage lending as one of the most important economic tasks for Ukraine. Being an integral part of the financial system, mortgage loans in world experience implies a relationship between the availability of a procedure for loan pawning applied to obtain special loans and the ratio between the actual receipt of mortgage loans. It is important to note that the mortgage system combines economic, legal and social aspects. One of the peculiarities of the Ukrainian mortgage system, which differs from the foreign one, is that the mortgage market still does not use complex instruments and is not fully integrated into the national and even global financial system.</p> <p>It has been proven and theoretically justified that the mortgage lending system of some countries is significantly simplified, which makes it very profitable even for non-residents. Spain and Turkey are considered the most profitable among them, but not all banks in these countries grant loans to foreign citizens. In Spain, only a few banks offer mortgage loans to non-residents. These are Bankinter, Santander, Bankia and Caja Murcia, and in Turkey they list only three: Fortis Bank, DenizBank and Garanti Bank. In addition to the above-mentioned countries, favorable mortgage lending conditions are offered by Italy, Cyprus, the USA and France.</p> <p>The study analyses the mortgages conditions in European countries, as well as mortgage products offered to potential borrowers from various countries of the world. The results reveal the differences in interest rates, customer requirements and mechanisms for deals registration. The analysis of the interest rates for obtaining a mortgage in the EU member states reveal that the lowest interest rates are in Finland at 1.47%, Luxembourg -1.8%, Sweden -1.85% and Slovakia -1.90%. The highest rates are applied in Hungary (6%), Croatia (6%) and Romania (5.5%).</p> <p>It has been proven that the development of the mortgage market in Ukraine combined with the experience of other countries will contribute to the expansion of the money market and increase the banks competitiveness level. This impact can be put into practice under the establishment of the necessary infrastructure for the mortgage market. Banks will switch from consumer lending to mortgage lending.</p> Yuliia Nehoda, Оlena Zharikova, Tetyana Grebenyuk Copyright (c) 2022 Yuliia Nehoda, Оlena Zharikova, Tetyana Grebenyuk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/190 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural diversity: National culture and its impact on motivation http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/185 <p>One of the important factors affecting the organisation culture is the national culture of a country in which the company operates. Nation’s culture can be defined as values, expectations and behaviours learned and shared by a group of people, passed down from generation to generation. National culture impacts organisation’s standards and values. And furthermore, national culture significantly affects also its business relations and employee motivation.</p> <p>Organisations and society have become increasingly more globalised and multicultural. It is common that the workplace involves more than one culture (Winch, 2015, p. 85). Since this article involves Asian, American and European companies, the three cultures are selected as the focus. Yet, still the companies’ operations, financial results and workers’ motivation are strongly influenced by national cultures of the countries in which the organizations are active.</p> <p>The article aims to specify what is the role of diversity management and how much influence the national culture can have on the employee motivation and business processes in multicultural companies on the example of chosen European, American and Asian companies. Therefore, in this article it has been tried to establish the differences in management of international corporations and the influence of European, American and Asian culture on the particular company. The practical objective of this article, however, is to examine a degree to which management based on culture should be implemented and to demonstrate a change in the importance of the intercultural diversity.</p> <p>For the purpose of the research the standardized and formalized questionnaire has been prepared. The questions were mainly closed questions, there was also one open question. From the analysis of the study it appears that the national culture of the company’s origin country has little influence on management and motivation model in the company.</p> Tomasz Bronisław Czapran Copyright (c) 2022 Tomasz Bronisław Czapran https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/185 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Artificial intelligence, its application and development prospects in the context of state security http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/183 <p>Today, we observe the process of the constant expansion of the list of countries using AI in order to ensure the state of security, although depending on the system in force in them, its intensity and depth of interference in the sphere of rights and freedoms of an individual are different.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to define what is AI, which is applicable in the area of state security, and to indicate the prospects for the development of AI. The historical method was used as the leading one in the research process, supported by the comparative method and the dogmatic method.</p> Igor Britchenko, Krzysztof Chochowski Copyright (c) 2022 Igor Britchenko, Krzysztof Chochowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/183 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The importance of mass urban transport from a national security perspective http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/184 <p>The article examines the energy consumption and importance of mass transport from the perspective of national security. All this is directly related to the way of life of people. The figure of mass public transport and its serious role in all these processes is included. The topic of the implementation of new technologies in cities and their realization is affected.</p> Vasil Kolev Copyright (c) 2022 Vasil Kolev https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://politics-security.net/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/184 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300